Blue Flower


The will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895. The prizes in 




 Physics, and

Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901.[1] The related Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established by Sweden's central bank in 1968.


Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold, and later from 18 carat green gold plated with a 24 carat gold coating. Between 1901 and 2015, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 573 times to 900 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 870 individuals (822 men and 48 women)[2] and 23 organizations.